So first of all, let's see what 1st house/Ascendant and 4th house represent -
1st house/Ascendant is your self, physique, personality, overall health, life path and head in human body etc.
4th house represents your home, home environment, homeland, mother, nourishment, childhood friends, peace of mind, conveniences, intuition etc.
Now, what does it mean to have 1st house lord in 4th house?
It means the planet which rules/controls/owns the 1st house/Ascendant of your horoscope is sitting in the 4th house of horoscope.
Now, what is the impact of having 1st house lord in 4th house?
Its generic interpretation is that person's focus through-out life is on mother, home, things related to mother, homeland. Career Wise, it can make a person willing to work from home or any private office. It also makes someone very interested in real-estate. Person's personality and life path is deeply impacted by mother, either good way or bad way. But depending on the planet which is ascendant lord and sits in 4th house, things can turn around drastically.
Results may also be different due to aspect, conjunctions of other planets or the planet being Retrograde or Combust. Moreover, now we also need to check the strength of 4th house lord as 1st house lord is going in 4th house. So again, Overall Chart Reading is important.
So, let's see how different planets will behave differently as Ascendant Lord in 4th house.
Sun - Suppose it is a Leo Ascendant chart and Sun sits in the 4th house in the sign of Scorpio. This can be both a good or bad situation. It shows someone adapting whole personality from mother but at the same time having a trans-formative relation with mother, means sometimes they are really good but other times they are not. It shows for career someone wants to work from home or private office. It also shows someone involved in politics and local government. It also shows that mother is taking tough role of being father for her kids.
Moon - So it is Cancer Ascendant Chart and Moon rules the 1st house and sits in 4th house in Libra. It shows a very balanced relations with Mother. Here person gets the benefits from mother and mother provides all the conveniences. It also shows a very happy and balanced home environment.
Mars - Mars can be Ascendant ruler through its two signs. So, let's take both one after the other.
Aries Ascendant - So if Mars is lord of Ascendant through Aries sign and sits in 4th house in Cancer, then it is debilitated. It shows constant arguments and fights with mother. Property dispute with brothers and aggressive home environment. As Mars also rules 8th house for Aries Ascendant and sitting in 4th house, it shows sudden events and transformations coming into home environment and mother's life. As Mars is debilitated, it will show someone losing property in inheritance rights.
Scorpio Ascendant - Now if Mars is lord of Ascendant through Scorpio sign and sits in 4th house in Aquarius sign, then this also shows troublesome home environment but not up to the level of Mars in Cancer. For Scorpio, Mars rules 6th house of obstacles, debts, diseases etc. So, in this case diseases, debts and litigation can impact home life and as Mars is in better condition now, there are chances of getting over these obstacles. Anyways getting a loan or having a property dispute is not a big deal in this day and age. But one should be careful regarding anger and aggressive nature whenever Mars is in bad condition. Be careful about driving and taking loans too.
Mercury - Mercury also can be Ascendant ruler through its two signs. So, let's take both one after the other.
Gemini Ascendant - If Mercury is Ascendant Lord through its Gemini sign and sits in 4th house in Virgo sign which is also ruled by Mercury, and then it is also exalted. Here it gives the best result. It gives a very communicative relation with mother. Mother was well organised and taught the same to kids. Here it shows someone doing business from home and very serious, calculative and clever about it. Here person gets wealth and conveniences from mother. It also shows someone dealing with real-estate.
Virgo Ascendant - If Mercury is Ascendant Lord through its Virgo sign and sits in 4th house in Sagittarius, then it shows a person who is very much interested in collecting information about religious texts, Astrology etc. As Mercury also rules the 10th house of career for Virgo Ascendant, these people can surely be in business of occult. Mother becomes the source of any such information.
Venus - Venus also can be Ascendant ruler through its two signs. So, let's take both one after the other.
Taurus Ascendant - If Venus is Ascendant Lord through its sign Taurus and sits in 4th house in Leo sign then this can also give wealth and conveniences through mother. These people are very much home oriented and keep home in a beautiful way. They can work as interior designer and decorators but again as for Taurus Ascendant, Venus also rules 6th house of diseases and obstacles. So, obstacles may be coming to the Mother. They should be careful against sugar related diseases. But overall good money from mother and home.
Libra Ascendant - If Venus is Ascendant Lord through its sign Libra and sits in 4th house in Capricorn then again Venus is in friendly sign. This position brings better benefits than Venus in Leo, which is not so friendly to Venus. So, here also person gets good benefits from mother. Here, home environment is filled with occult and mysticism related talks and either the mother or wife is source of this information.This is because Venus again rules the 8th house through Taurus sign. Also, these people face sudden events and transformation in related with mother and home but they overcome these events as Venus is in a friendly sign. Special care is needed while driving.
Jupiter - Jupiter also can be Ascendant ruler through its two signs. So, let's take both one after the other.
Sagittarius Ascendant - If Jupiter is Ascendant Lord through its sign Sagittarius and sits in 4th house in Pisces, which is also ruled by Jupiter, then it is surely as good a position as Mercury exalted for Gemini Ascendant. Here not only benefits and nourishment come from mother but mother also becomes like a Guru to the person. She is like a divine mother for the native and immense wealth and property is gained through mother. Native's life is all about his mother.
Pisces Ascendant - If Jupiter is Ascendant Lord through its sign Pisces and sits in 4th house in Gemini sign then this person is also very much in Spiritual Field of work as Jupiter also rules the 10th house through Sagittarius sign but this shows a person who is teacher from home environment. This person can also work as spiritual teacher and astrologer. Good Relations & Benefits from Mother are similarly available here.
Saturn - Saturn also can be Ascendant ruler through its two signs.
If it is Capricorn Ascendant, then Saturn rules 1st & 2nd house both and sits in 4th house in Aries. Now, it is getting debilitated. In this case, person gets detached from mother very early in life for whatever the reason. This position gives a very limited happiness/benefits from mother and home. It also shows person getting into disputes/litigation with his mother over land and property and losing it.
If Saturn is Ascendant through Aquarius Sign, then it rules Ascendant & 12th house and sits in Taurus sign in 4th house. This is seen as a little better position then the previous one as Saturn is in a friendly sign Taurus. But as I said, Saturn always does its job. So, restricted relation and criticism from mother will be there. Plus as Saturn rules 12th house of losses and expenses, it shows someone taking huge expenses for home or mother. It also shows that loss may be coming to mother. Its just that Saturn is in friendly sign, so losses/expenses will be manageable. Person becomes critical to mother.
Rahu - If Rahu is Ascendant Lord through its sign Aquarius, as it co-rules Aquarius along with Saturn, and sits in 4th house in Taurus then 1st of all we need to make sure of Saturn's position as it is the main ruler. Then, Rahu in Taurus in 4th house shows someone having huge profits, big homes and lots of wealth. But at the same time, there is something secret about his relation to mother. It may even be that Mother may be a foster mother or someone born through Test-Tube Baby or Surrogacy. But wealth wise, it is excellent.
Ketu - Likewise, If Ketu is Ascendant Lord through its sign Scorpio, as it co-rules Scorpio along with Mars, and sits in 4th house in Aquarius then again we need to make sure of Mars' position as it is the main ruler. Then Ketu here shows a person who is separated from his mother or homeland. If not separated from mother, she suffers in health. Native feels isolated from mother. He always feels that mother was not fair towards him. He only gains after moving out of his homeland.
Hope this covers maximum points and is helpful.
Vishal S Saxena - Astrologer.
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